When it comes to construction projects, steel and concrete are two of the most commonly used materials. The latter was utilized regularly in architecture by the Ancient Romans, while steel is more modern. Which one should you use?
Is steel stronger than concrete? If comparing it to plain concrete, then the short answer is “yes – steel is stronger” for the most part.
However, depending on how it is mixed, concrete can perform better under compression load.
There are always variables to consider when selecting the ideal construction material. You must consider factors such as the type of steel, concrete mixture, the type of building, size, environmental impact, and so forth.
In general, steel’s strength to weight ratio is higher than that of other cost effective construction materials. However, it still has some limitations.
Tensile Strength VS Compressive Strength
Unlike steel, concrete is not a single solid material. The latter is a mixture of various materials such as cement, fly ash or slag, water, and aggregate, which makes it more vulnerable to stretching. Tensile strength refers to the maximum amount of elongated stress a material can withstand before failing or coming apart.
Note: the materials used in the mixture of the composite play a role in its overall strength and capabilities. Still, the percentage of its tensile – or formidable – strength is usually in the 10% – 15% range of its compressive strength.
While traditional building materials tend not to do well when stretched apart, they can handle the weight of being “pushed” against each other in a state of stress. In short, the higher the compressive strength of a material, the better able that material is to withstand a crushing force.
Using Concrete in Construction and Infrastructure
If you are still asking, “Is steel stronger than concrete?” You might want to change the question to “Which would be the better fit for my specifications?”
Concrete isn’t the best choice for construction projects that involve long beams or other linear shapes that must be able to resist vertical loads, since the material’s tensile problems don’t allow for it to be stretched very much without weakening.
The plain cement variety is a mix of a coarse aggregate (gravel or cement), a fine aggregate (sand), and water. It is ideal for use in the manufacture of blocks for walls and roads.
Prestressed concrete is an ideal choice for any of your projects that require cross sections for light structures. The material is substantially “prestressed” during the production process to ensure it is strong enough to hold out against any potentially problematic forces that will exist when the concrete is in service.
What About Using Concrete and Steel Together?
When building with concrete, reinforcement bars or wire mesh (usually steel or fiber) are sometimes embedded to counter tensile weakness.
Reinforced concrete is now widely used in construction projects, from foundations to water tanks. Some builders use fiber in a regular concrete mixture for pavements or on-ground floors.
Using Steel in Construction and Design
There are several types of steel. The rebar (steel reinforcement bar) variety, for instance, is available in a variety of sizes and may or may not have a coating. Epoxy is sometimes used on rebar to help prevent corrosion.
If your building project requires specific shapes such as the I-beam, C-beam or cross-section, rail profile, Z-shape, etc…, structural steel is a good choice.
However, keep in mind that these parts require a skilled workforce to work correctly; otherwise, the material’s long-term viability is compromised.
Engineers often use a cold-formed variety of steel (CFS) to produce a wide range of parts (beams, studs, joists, built-up sections, and floor decking) for industrial and construction projects.
It’s easier for steel to be moved around without concern for permanent deformation.
Plain and reinforced concrete shine in large-scale projects such as roads, tunnels, dams, and bridges. It also makes an excellent foundation for homes and is commonly found in garages and basements. However, its weight is a limitation in floor-to-floor construction height, which is why most skyscrapers have a steel framework. Even concrete buildings have a steel frame.
Durability and Cost
Your project site’s location is an essential consideration of which material(s) would be the most cost-effective and whether or not steel or concrete is the more durable choice. Safety should also be high up on our priority list. What kinds of buildings offer the most safety in your area?
Each material is strong enough to resist certain types of forces. Concrete is typically known for its inherent heat resistance.
If utilized inside the building envelope, its thermal mass will help regulate the indoor temperatures, potentially lowering energy costs associated with heating during winter and air conditioning in months with high temperatures.
Steel structures, on the other hand, are not as fire resistant, and require heat treatment, which can be an additional cost. It’s also susceptible to corrosion and rust since it is a metal.
The fact that ancient concrete buildings (especially those with Limestone), such as Stonehenge and the Colosseum, are still standing after thousands of years is a testament to how durable the mixture can be.
Over the past century or so, steel buildings have been constructed in urban areas all around the world, as the metal is easy to fabricate and install.
Steel also has an advantage when it comes to other extreme weather conditions. Its ductility allows for it to withstand high winds better. It’s also less likely to become brittle over time, which means reduced maintenance costs for you if you build in areas prone to earthquakes or tornados and need a structure that is as resistant to them as possible.
The price of concrete remains relatively stable over time, while the price of steel is subject to fluctuation.
In terms of overall durability of concrete VS steel, the latter is not as vulnerable to stretching or cracking as the former.
Concrete or steel: which of the two is made with the most recycled materials? You can recycle steel over and over again. The vast majority of structural steel used today comes from recycled steel. It can even be adapted several times with hardly any compromise to its structural integrity during its lifespan.
If anything, you might be concerned with the carbon footprint of steel. It does require a great deal of transportation to and from the construction site, whereas builders work on the concrete AT the construction site.
On the other hand, concrete isn’t as environmentally-friendly as you might think due to cement production, even if the other ingredients in the mixture are natural. The good news is that there is ongoing research to find cleaner, safer alternatives in the mixture.
Using recycled concrete as aggregate in the production of new concrete improves its environmental-friendliness.
Many decisions need to be made in a construction project, no matter how large or small. There are several types of steel and concrete, and chances are, you might need a combination of the two.
Regardless of your decision, it’s crucial to understand that the quality and durability of either is only as good as its mixture, production, and application will allow. Despite the arguing between steel building experts and concrete building experts, the collapse of the Twin Towers was likely caused by unique design and building issues.